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OTOLOGY

 

SURGERY OF MIDDLE EAR

The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the inner ear. The mammalian middle ear contains three ossicles, which transfers the vibrations of the eardrum into waves in the fluid and membranes of the inner ear. The hollow space of the middle ear has also been called the tympanic cavity, or cavum tympani. The eustachian tube joins the tympanic cavity with the nasal cavity (nasopharynx), allowing pressure to equalize between the middle ear and throat.

Otitis media

 

Otitis media is a group of inflammatory diseases, Occasionally a feeling of fullness is described. It is defined as the presence of non-infectious fluid in the middle ear for more than three months. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is middle ear inflammation of greater than two weeks that results in episodes of discharge from the ear. It may be a complication of acute otitis media. Pain is rarely present.

Tympanoplasty

Eardrum repair

The eardrum (tympanic membrane) is between the outer ear and the middle ear. The eardrum vibrates when sound waves strike it. When the eardrum is damaged or has a hole in it, hearing may be reduced and ear infections may be more likely. Causes of holes or openings in the eardrum include: A bad ear infection Sticking something inside the ear canal Surgery to place ear tubes Trauma, There is a chronic infection in the ear or buildup of extra tissue around or behind the eardrum

Mastoidectomy

A Mastoidectomy is a procedure performed to remove the mastoid air cells. This can be done as part of treatment for mastoiditis, chronic suppurative otitis media or Cholesteatoma. In addition, it is sometimes performed as part of other procedures (cochlear implant) or for access to the middle ear. There are classically 5 different types of Mastoidectomy:

Stapedectomy

Hearing Improvement

it is possible to improve hearing by removing the stapes bone and replacing it with a micro prosthesis - a stapedectomy, or creating a small hole in the fixed stapes footplace and inserting a tiny, piston-like prosthesis - a stapedotomy. The results of this surgery are generally most reliable in patients whose stapes has lost mobility because of otosclerosis. Nine out of ten patients who undergo the procedure will come out with significantly improved hearing while less than 1% will experience worsened hearing ability or deafness.

Neurotology

Neurotology or neuro-otology is a branch of clinical medicine which studies and treats neurological disorders of the ear.[1] It is a subspecialty of otolaryngology-head and neck surgery, and is closely related to otology. Otology generally refers to the treatment of middle ear disease and resultant conductive hearing loss, whereas neurotology refers to treatment of inner ear conditions, or hearing and balance disorders.